This Construction and Maintenance Guide is based upon the findings of research work commissioned by CSS and the Highways Agency and provides a practical field guide for engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of footways and cycle routes. This revision of Application Guide 26 replaces the original Footways Design and Maintenance Guide AG26, first published in 1996 (TRL), which has been amended and updated to include guidance on cycle routes and the findings of recent research.
Part 1 of this Guide covers the structural design and construction of footways, constructed from common materials and subject to a range of pedestrian traffic and varying degrees of overrun by vehicular traffic.
Structural design depends on the existing ground conditions, the level of use and the risk and type of vehicle overrun. Guidance is given on selecting the most appropriate footway category and investigating the strength of the subgrade where a structure may be subject to vehicle overrun. Basic geometrical requirements are outlined and drainage works by Statutory Undertakers and environmental factors are discussed.
Recommended construction thicknesses are given for each category of footway. These may vary with the surface course material. Asphalt, concrete or clay pavers, precast concrete flags, in-situ concrete, and natural stone are considered. Information is provided on construction details, including edge restraint, material specifications, compaction requirements, tolerances and testing. A number of worked examples are included.
Part 2 of this Guide covers the structural design and construction of cycle routes; Part 3 covers maintenance of footways and Part 4 covers cycle route maintenance. Defects likely to be encountered by the maintenance engineer are described and illustrated. The mechanisms through which these defects arise are also discussed. New concepts are introduced, such as the use of Condition Indicators in maintenance management.
Advice is given on suitable treatment options, depending on the cause of the defect and the urgency of remedial work. Both temporary and long-term treatments are described in some detail. As there are many different maintenance situations, and many possible solutions, flow charts are included to assist in the design process. Illustrated case studies are also included.
Part 5 is an Annex containing acknowledgements, references, a bibliography and appendices, which include specifications and advice on inspection methods.

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