the report describes two alternative approaches to modelling the distribution of work journeys for given locations of homes and of jobs. the first approach is the traditional one based on a deterrence function or a gravity model; the second is based on random utility theory, in which each individual chooses his home or workplace or both so as to maximise his perceived utility. these approaches are incompatible with each other except in the case of the negative-exponential deterrence function. this special case is then applied to various idealised patterns of homes and jobs, and theoretical results are found for average distances travelled to work and for average utilities achieved. while patterns giving rise to short journeys often give rise to high utility, this is not always the case. in general both criteria favour compact towns with high densities and with workplaces at or fairly near the centre. large distances between towns tend to reduce travel distances, but because they reduce choice, they tend also to reduce utilities.(a)

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