Currently, no regulatory test exists in Europe to assess and control the risk of Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) injury in low-speed rear impacts. The current focus for the UK Department for Transport’s efforts to reduce WAD injury is through the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) WG12 (Biomechanics) and WG20 (Rear Impact Test Procedures). The tests documented in this report contribute towards the work programme of EEVC WG12 to provide guidance to WG20 and the EEVC Steering Committee on a suitable dummy for low-speed rear impact injury risk assessment.
In order to fulfil its obligations to WG20, WG12 is conducting a programme of research to comprehensively assess the two existing rear impact dummies against a range of biofidelity requirements. This report details low speed rear impact tests, conducted with the two rear impact dummies available (RID3D and BioRID II) and a standard Hybrid III high-severity frontal impact dummy. The tests were designed to replicate those conducted previously with human volunteers at TRL. The dummy responses have been compared with those of the volunteers with the objectives of assessing the biofidelity of all dummies and recommending any further improvements necessary before one specific dummy can be recommended for regulatory use. A number of proposed injury criteria have also been calculated for these tests with a view to using this information to aid in the evaluation of these injury criteria by WG12.
The test configuration used a dual sled impact to simulate a low-speed rear impact in a car-to-car crash. Each dummy was seated on a modified UN-ECE R44 test seat on a target sled, which was then impacted by a second sled to give a Δv of 7 km.h-1 (~1.9 m.s-1) and a 2 g impact pulse. Three identical tests were successfully conducted with each dummy, closely replicating the test conditions and impact pulse used for each volunteer. Through the use of a Tekscan pressure mat mounted on the seatback and load cells mounted in the head restraint, it was possible to compare the seat interaction of the volunteers with that from the dummy tests. Internal sensor readings from each dummy were compared with each other and the external accelerometer readings from the volunteers and the head and neck displacements of the
dummies were compared with those from the volunteer tests. On the basis of these comparisons conclusions were drawn about the biofidelity of the dummies tested.
It was concluded that the Hybrid III head restraint and seat back interaction is not human-like and it should not be used to assess the protection offered by active head restraint systems. The BioRID II had the most human-like seat back interaction and head and neck kinematics of the three dummies under the test conditions used. The RID3D also had good head and neck motion. Based on the result
from this biofidelity test condition, the BioRID II was recommended as the most suitable dummy for use in a regulatory test procedure to a

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