Instantaneous emission models aim to provide a precise description of vehicle emission behaviour by relating emission rates to vehicle operation during a series of short time steps (often one second). In recent years, increases in computing power have enabled more practical use to be made of micro-simulation traffic models. These can be used to assess the effects of various measures applied to the network, such as ramp metering, route diversion, variable speed limits, travel information systems and route guidance, thus leading to improvements in traffic management policies. Such models are the only tools which can be used to assess the impacts of policies and infrastructure changes on individual types of driver, time-varying policies, and complex junctions and layouts.
This Report presents an examination of the links between instantaneous emission models, micro-simulation traffic models and air pollution dispersion models. This Report gives most emphasis on the first two model categories, as the integration with air pollution models has received limited emphasis by the modelling community. This integration with air pollution models remains largely restricted by the physical demands on computing power associated with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics-based models. The advantages offered by instantaneous traffic and emission modelling have not been widely incorporated into air pollution modelling tools.

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