this report describes the application of cristal, a strategic model for urban transport planning, to assess the economic benefits that might arise from various forms of road pricing, parking charges, supplementary licences, entry charges or changes in public transport fares in the london area. the model deals only with those benefits accruing to transport users and operators, including changes in tax revenue. the desirability of implementing the policies discussed will be heavily influenced by wider social, environmental and political considerations. it is concluded that all the restraint schemes would yield similar benefits if applied optimally to central london in 1980. extending the priced area to inner london significantly increases the benefits from road pricing charges, gives a smaller increase in those from parking charges but gives no extra benefit from supplementary licences or entry charges. comparative tests with free bus and rail fares give benefits similar to those from restraint for both central and inner areas. the existence of restraint or free fare schemes would not substantially reduce the economic benefits obtainable from motorway investment. the validity of these conclusions depends on how adequately the assumptions and approximations in the model represent the real situation; our understanding of how travellers would react to large changes in travel charges is limited. (a)

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