an exercise was carried out on access times by rail and road links to mainline railway terminals in north-west england. the average rail journey time to london was calculated by two methods. firstly, it was assumed that all trips were made via a single centre, and secondly, the region was divided into 4 or 8 zones, each with its own railhead. the conclusion was that using a single centre over-estimates the journey time, but the average time with a small number of centres tends to agree with the average times to the railheads. (a)

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