The introduction of remote operation has the potential to accelerate the development of driverless vehicles and make their safe deployment more viable. However, the wireless connections between vehicles and operators present new cyber security hazards that could be exploited by attackers.
This study identified best practices in cyber security so that they can be incorporated into safety cases for the future trials and deployments of Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs). Potential mitigations for cyber-attacks were drawn first from a review of the existing cyber literature, and subsequently from interviews with expert stakeholders. The literature review suggested that the best cyber mitigations were intrusion detection, encryption of data, verifying the identity of all users and the use of minimum risk manoeuvres. The stakeholder engagement suggested that ensuring that any cyber-systems were secure by design and resilient to any attacks were the most important factors.
To ensure cyber security of remote operation of CAVs, this study highlighted several actions that should be considered. Though many cyber security techniques exist, it is best practice to implement cyber security mitigations on a case-by-case basis and, where possible, these systems (e.g. authentication methods) should be secure from their conception. Furthermore, minimum risk manoeuvres should be developed, to ensure the safety of both vehicle occupants and other road users.