a method of estimating minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures based on a geographical distribution of minimum and maximum shade temperatures over the united kingdom is derived and compared with measurements. where measured bridge temperatures are inadequate (i.e. for extremely low or extremely high shade temperatures), theoretical studies of bridge temperatures are used. the form of presentation of the shade temperature data permits the determination of the likely limits of effective bridge temperature over selected numbers of years. the information contained in this report provides the background to some of the temperature clauses in a new british standards institution document on bridge loading.(a)

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