In 1987 the London Accident Analysis Unit (LAAU) published a study of the safety implications of with-flow bus lanes (see IRRD 810564). In order to assess the safety of all types of bus priorities, the Transport and Road Research Laboratory commissioned the LAAU to extend its studies to include the following types of measures: i) contra-flow bus lanes; ii) restricted access streets; iii) turning movement concessions; iv) pedestrian crossings in bus lanes; v) siting of bus stops; and vi) taxis in bus priority schemes. The present study was based on all the sites of each type that could be determined from the records of London Regional Transport, the Greater London Council, and local Boroughs. For the first three types of measure, all known sites were surveyed, and for each a detailed inventory of features was compiled in a standard format. In the case of pedestrian crossings in bus lanes, a sample was chosen from those in with-flow and in contra-flow bus lanes. Accident records for each site were analysed using the LAAU database for Greater London. All accidents within a defined area affected by each bus priority measure were extracted for the three-year period to August 1988. A detailed analysis looked at the types, locations, speeds and manoeuvres of any vehicles involved in each accident, and related these to the features of the specific site. A more general comparison was also made of the accident rates of nearby roads without bus priority measures. The study identified several sources of road accident problems, notably with pedestrians in contra-flow bus lanes, and at some pedestrian crossings in both with-flow and contra-flow bus lanes. Over 70% of pedestrian casualties in contra-flow lanes are hit by PSVs in the bus lane; 92% of all pedestrian casualties occur other than at a pedestrian crossing. Comparison with similar roads near the contra-flow lanes studied found no significant difference in the number of accidents per kilometre of road. There was however a relatively high accident risk on the bus lane side of the road compared with the opposite lane(s). About 14% of accidents in contra-flow lanes involved non-permitted vehicles violating the bus lane regulations. On the bus lane side of the road, 77% of accidents occurred at or within 20m of a junction. The rates for all accidents at Zebra and Pelican crossings in with-flow bus lanes were about 75% and 35% higher, respectively, than the Greater London average for all crossings. At Pelican crossings (but not at Zebra crossings) the accident rate was 60% higher on the bus lane side of the road. Restricted access streets and turning movement concessions appeared to create few additional safety problems. The report concludes with guidelines and recommendations for improved design that could reduce accidents in existing or new bus priority measures. As part of the study, a literature search on bus priority measures and safety was carried out on the ACOMPLINE, URBALINE, IRRD a

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