This report describes a study of the effect of various maintenance strategies utilising both mechanical plant and labour intensive methods, on the performance of unpaved roads in Kenya. The results show that on properly constructed roads, towed graders can carry out the surface maintenance as effectively as motor graders. Towed graders can be produced in most if not all developing countries and if augmented by labour intensive methods would reduce the reliance of these countries on imported machinery for the maintenance of unpaved roads. The use of various mechanical drags for maintaining low volume roads was quantified and recommendations made for suitable designs of drag for differing road conditions. Results of labour intensive trials showed that they could be effective but that this form of maintenance is strongly influenced by the degree of supervision. (A)

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