the report concerns research into site investigation for road projects in scotland. project organisation and the accuracy of cost and time estimation have been examined. accuracy of cost estimation was moderate and time estimation poor. quantities and costs were briefly analysed and average annual rates for the construction of earthworks were calculated. wide variation in the accuracy of estimation of earthworks quantities was found to exist. opinions as to the effectiveness of site investigation varied widely. the average expenditure on site investigation in scotland for the period studied was 0.47% of the total project cost. site investigation reports showed great diversity in content, layout and presentation. poor presentation and inadequate recording of test results was common; compliance with bs recommendations was lacking. detailed field work indicated that the majority of site investigation failings came from fundamental issues and that site investigation practice was seldom optimum. major improvement in effectiveness is therefore possible through care and planning without necessarily increasing expenditure on site investigation. the need to include a preliminary phase (to extract information from available data) is emphasised. the report concludes that it is not the state of the art which is the main cause of failings but the state of application of the art. the solution includes education and efficient planning.(a)

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