While whole life costing is considered important, a literature review of the whole life costing of footways and cycle tracks found that there is little and contradictory guidance on which materials and methods result in whole life cost benefits. This report provides guidance on the whole life evaluation of footways and cycle tracks. The concept of whole life costing, its principles and a method of producing qualitative whole life costs are presented. Other aspects which affect the choice of footway materials and the wider costs, such as claims, accidents, regeneration schemes and sustainability are discussed. Whole life value is also considered; this aims to achieve the optimum balance between whole life costs on the one hand, and the aspirations, needs, and requirements of stakeholders on the other. Aesthetics can play a large role in choice of footway material in urban settings because aesthetically pleasing footways can encourage business and regeneration of an area. Information on construction and maintenance costs was obtained from a number of local authorities and showed that there were large regional variations in costs. Average costs and typical maintenance regimes were used to model the whole life cost of asphalt and flagged footways. It was found that in rural areas where maintenance is infrequent the whole life cost is dominated by construction costs and therefore flexible footways are the least expensive. In urban locations where there is a greater degree of vehicle overrun and disruption by utilities, maintenance is more frequent and the whole life costs of flexible surfacing and slabs are similar. However, slabs are thought more likely to cause trips, increasing accident costs.

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