TRL was commissioned by the Highways Agency to assess the scientific understanding of ‘instantaneous’ emission models for road vehicles. The overall aims of the research were to review and evaluate instantaneous emission data and models, and to show how improvements in modelling could lead to improvements in the prediction and control of local air quality. This review explains the rationale of instantaneous ‘hot’ emission modelling, and describes a number of models in some detail, with reference to aspects such as availability, cost, capabilities, ease of use and the robustness of the predictions. This review covers emission models which have been available for some time (e.g. MODEM, DGV, ADVISOR, MOVES), as well as those from recent and on-going research programmes (e.g. PHEM, VeTESS, CMEM).

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