Neck injuries, even those with a minor threat to life, are associated with huge costs for society. The cost to European society is estimated to be between € 5 billion and € 10 billion per year. Consequently, it is understood in most industrialised countries that whiplash injuries constitute a serious problem with implications for the individual as well as for society as a whole. At the same time, it is recognised that progress in injury mitigation could be achieved by improving the use, design and efficiency of seats and head restraints in vehicles. An appropriate test procedure adopted into a standard would ensure that seat systems are optimised to reduce the risk of whiplash injury in low severity rear-end collisions.
As part of a programme of work for the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC), TRL has undertaken two pieces of work for the UK Department for Transport that are both summarised in this report. The first part of this project was to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest versions of the RID3D, BioRID II and Hybrid III rear impact crash test dummies against previously defined performance requirements. This testing then formed the UK contribution to a wider programme of research carried out by the EEVC Biomechanics Working Group to evaluate those dummies. To assist with this wider programme, the second objective of this project was to collate the results from other contributors and synthesise them (together with the TRL results) into a report for the EEVC.
The information from the UK and from WG12 was then used to produce a final report on the suitability of these dummies for use in a regulatory rear impact test procedure and to make recommendations as to any further developments which may be required in order to develop a suitable dummy for such a procedure.

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