An experimental trial was undertaken which involved reducing the invitation to cross (green man) period at a sample of nine signal controlled junctions in London and assessing the effects on accessibility, safety and behaviour of pedestrians and other road users.
The study was undertaken using video footage which was obtained during before and after periods. Conflict studies were undertaken which involved observing, evaluating and recording ‘near misses’. A sample of pedestrians was interviewed including pedestrians with special mobility needs who were accompanied whilst crossing junctions.
Approximately 90% of conflicts involved a pedestrian crossing whilst a red man was displayed. The total number of conflicts was very similar in the before and after periods.
There was an increase in the number of one of the more minor classifications of conflict although this did not appear to be associated with the re-timing.
The number of pedestrians who failed to comply with the signals increased.
Pedestrian speeds were unaffected. Most pedestrians exceeded the assumed speed used in national guidance and the speeds of slower pedestrians approximated to this.
There was a small increase in the number of vehicles passing through most of the sites. The increase was statistically significant.
Most pedestrians did not notice the change to the timing and their levels of satisfaction with the waiting time were unchanged. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the numbers who were satisfied with the crossing time and an increase in the numbers of pedestrians with mobility impairments who felt rushed or unsafe at the sites where the signals had been re-timed.

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