As part of proposed revisions to the type approval requirements for L-category vehicles (mopeds, motorcycles, tricycles and quadricycles), TRL was contracted by the European Commission to investigate possible measures to prevent or restrict ‘harmful tampering’ to the powertrain of L-category vehicles and how this could be verified in service.
Via literature, stakeholder consultation, and engineering knowledge, TRL identified and prioritised harmful tampering events using objective analysis based on the same principals as a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This estimated prioritisation was verified and adjusted by quantifying actual effects on emissions, safety and noise measured through physical testing. This was achieved by a paired comparison between ‘untampered’ and ‘tampered’ L-category vehicles and tested at the scientific and technical research laboratory, the Joint Research Centre (JRC). The test programme involved 16 different vehicles, covering the broad range of L-category vehicles.
A benefit estimate used the test results to value the effects and a basic break-even analysis was conducted with the aim of scoping the likely break-even value of tampering control measures. This analysis identified areas of vehicle design which, based on the information from the test programme and the assumptions made in the analysis, are candidates for the development of cost-effective anti-tampering measures. In addition to measures aimed at combating specific tampering types, a range of further options were identified which have the potential to improve the effectiveness of anti-tampering regulation, as well as potential methods to measure and verify vehicle performance.

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