It is estimated that statutory undertakers in England carry out between 1.0 and 1.5 million works per year, resulting in approximately 2.2 million m2 of reinstatement in carriageways and footways each year. Although this data relates to England, it would be expected that the number of reinstatement in Scotland would be proportionately similar. This illustrates the impact that undertaker reinstatements could have on the roads in Scotland and highlights the need for reinstatements to meet the relevant compliance criteria.
It is generally recognised that reinstatement defects such as settlement, cracking and pooling of water are often due to the poor compaction of the unbound and lower layers within a reinstatement. If the current rate of non-compliance was to improve, additional funding from local roads authorities would not be required to address non-compliant reinstatements.
This study comprises a state-of-the-art review on innovative techniques and trials of materials developed to improve the performance of utility reinstatements. The review will summarise the latest research and developments to provide a reference document for utility companies, roads authorities, local authorities, contractors and others involved with reinstating road openings.

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