The literature review discusses many aspects of short trips. It begins with an explanation of how journey distances have lengthened as population and employment have decentralised and destinations have become less accessible, thereby increasing car dependency. The volume and journey purpose of short trips in Great Britain are studied. Some case studies of travel patterns are used to assess the factors affecting trip making. This includes the incentives and deterrents to using various modes of travel and the factors influencing route choice. Transport emissions and pollution in Great Britain are considered and the impact of these on the health of road users such as pedestrians and cyclists is examined. The review then seeks to identify the potential for transferring short trips to energy efficient modes by investigating considerations such as distance, time and the availability of other modes. Having identified that journeys less than five miles or journeys taking 20-25 minutes to complete could be transferred to more energy-efficient modes, measures to encourage this transfer are examined. Following this, a review of the land use and planning policies, accompanied by complementary transport measures is made with the aim of demonstrating how they could be used to guide a transfer of short trips to more energy-efficient modes. European case studies are used to illustrate successful attempts of policies to restrict car use, thereby encouraging short trips by walking, bicycling or public transport. (A)

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