information from eight cities in south east asia has been compared to examine, mainly from the user's viewpoint, the characteristics of different public transport modes. classification of the available public transport modes was made according to fare level and method of operation. as a result, a distinction is made between mass transit modes - defined as having fixed routes - and personalised public transport (ppt) modes. with few exceptions, mass transit modes have low fares and ppt modes have high fares. in only one city, chiang mai in thailand, is there a ppt mode which is widely used and for which fare levels are similar to mass transit fares.(a)

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