To provide an indication of the root causes of claims and other extra costs arising in the earthworks sector of highway construction a study has been carried out for the Transport and Road Research Laboratory by Mott, Hay and Anderson, Consulting Engineers. Records for ten contracts carried out between 1957 and 1977 have been analysed; these projects involved the construction of about 37km of major road at tender prices totalling more than 12 million, and additional costs totalling 4.2 million. The analyses show that extra costs arising from earthworks difficulties alone were not necessarily greater than those resulting from other types of difficulty; those from ground-related and pavement construction work also formed a significant part of total extra costs. Main areas that gave rise to the extra costs were planning of site investigation, interpretation of site investigation results, and overall project planning and management. (A)

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