The Transport Act 1985 requires generated travel to be taken into account in the determination of reimbursement payable to public transport operators for losses in revenue resulting from participation in concessionary fare schemes. Consequently several research studies have been made with the purpose of determining "generation factors". The results have been very varied, probably in consequence of the wide range of conditions obtaining in groups of areas selected for cross-sectional studies. The recent (January 1992) change from free travel to flat fares in the Tyne and Wear concessionary fare scheme provided an opportunity for a new kind of study, using "before" and "after" surveys. Both surveys included seven-day travel diaries, which provided details of public transport trips made before and after the change, and "reconstructive interviews" in which respondents were asked how they might have modified their use of public transport had different, higher fares been in force at the times of the surveys. The results show a substantial decline in public transport use attributable to the new fares. Major differences between the two sets of reconstructive interviews present difficulties in estimating generation factors, but it has been possible, by combining all the evidence, to produce a plausible range. It appears that generation factors in Tyne and Wear are much higher than those derived from studies elsewhere. (A)

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