Finite element modelling has been undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of both soil berms and raked props as temporary support during construction of embedded retaining walls permanently propped at carriageway level. In the former case construction involving a hinged permanent prop spanning an underpass has been assumed and in the latter the use of a stabilising base integral with the wall. The results have been compared with those calculated if temporary horizontal props were used or if the wall were allowed to cantilever. The analyses have been carried out assuming the wall was founded in stiff over-consolidated clay. The effect of using different soil models was investigated. (A)

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