This report describes the results of surveys that were carried out as the initial phase of a research programme which aims to improve pedestrian road safety education and reduce pedestrian accidents in Third World countries. The study includes replies from questionnaires distributed to Ministries of Education throughout the world and to schools in Botswana, Pakistan and Zimbabwe. The report also shows road accident data from Zimbabwe, Botswana, Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Pakistan (Karachi and Islamabad). Pedestrian casualties accounted for 50 per cent of the total injured in Karachi, 35 per cent in Zimbabwe, 29 per cent in Botswana and 33 per cent in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Of the pedestrian casualties killed in PNG, 36 per cent were less than 15 years old. The percentages of pedestrian casualties less than 15 years old who were killed in Karachi and Botswana were 29 and 26 per cent respectively. In Zimbabwe a sample of pedestrian casualties showed that 70 per cent were injured when walking along a road with their back to the traffic. The main journey purpose of adult pedestrians injured in Zimbabwe was walking from work to home. Twelve per cent of casualties less than 15 years old were injured on a school journey. Nine per cent of these were injured on the homeward trip. Worldwide, 43 Ministries of Education replied to a questionnaire on traffic education. In both the developed and developing countries there was a tendency for road safety to be a mandatory subject in the junior rather than the senior schools. Most Ministries recommended that road safety should be taught as part of another subject. In developing countries, Social Studies was the most frequently mentioned subject. The main priority for improving road safety education in developing countries was 'New curriculum materials'. In developed countries, the main priority was 'Increased teacher training'. About 50 per cent of the 1580 schools questioned claimed to have taught road safety. In Islamabad (26 per cent) and Zimbabwe (34 per cent), traffic safety instruction was left to the discretion of individual teachers. Road safety demonstrations and practices were carried out in about 50 per cent of schools in Zimbabwe. About 10 per cent of schools in Pakistan conducted demonstrations and held practices in a playground. Material help was generally sought as posters and films. Outside specialists were used to teach road safety in 28 per cent of schools in Botswana. Police visited about 5 per cent of the schools surveyed in Pakistan and 8 per cent in Zimbabwe and Botswana. In all three countries, the parent's role in teaching road safety in schools was negligible. In Zimbabwe (about 60 per cent), Botswana (54 per cent) and Pakistan (30 per cent) lack of finance and shortage of materials were cited as main reasons for not teaching road safety. Less than 5 per cent of any of the schools surveyed had provided cycle training for pupils. (A)

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