This report is based on an initial survey of the proposals received by the DOT (now DETR) for Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) systems on motorways. The focus of the survey is the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) of the In-Vehicle Units (IVUs). Where possible, comments are made about each unit from a human factors perspective and recommendations made for improvements in the proposed designs. A formal evaluation against a design specification cannot be undertaken at this time. As a result, comments on proposed designs are either very general or specific. The UK Code of Practice for In-Vehicle systems has been examined and no major conflicts have been found between the requirements of the Code and ETC IVUs. It is recommended that the final ETC specification should include detailed requirements for IVUs which, together with the general principles embodied in the exiting Code of Practice, will ensure that acceptable operation is attainable. The next phase of work is proposed which will involve an examination of drivers' interaction with IVUs during field trials. This, along with the evolving system requirements, will lead to a consolidation of design guidelines for future IVUs. (A) (This report is also included on the TRL CD-ROM entitled "Research on road user charging 1995-1998"). For the covering abstract see IRRD 491340.

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