Transport for London (TfL) has decided to implement a Bus Safety Standard as part of their strategy to reduce collisions involving buses and to mitigate the severity of injuries. This will control parts of the design and specification of the vehicles, including elements of primary, secondary and tertiary safety. Primary safety is concerned with preventing a collision from occurring (or reducing its severity); for example by reducing speed, braking or steering to avoid a collision. Secondary safety is focused on preventing or reducing the severity of injuries in a collision; for example with improved restraint design, or softened structures. Finally, tertiary safety is concerned with getting help to injured parties as quickly as possible in order to improve injury outcomes.

This report sets out the evidence being used to inform the first stage of TfL’s work to develop a new Bus Safety Standard (BSS). The report provides the evidence base for robust recommendations to define the vehicle safety interventions that will be integrated into new buses in order to improve bus safety. The BSS is planned for implementation from December 2018 so that all new buses introduced after that date will meet or exceed the Standard.

Where feasible, the data considered injuries of all severities, including slight injuries. However, due to the nature of the datasets available (e.g. police fatal files), the findings were focussed on the fatalities associated with bus collisions. The data was analysed to understand how the accidents and casualties could be most effectively avoided or mitigated. This was achieved by examining the frequencies of countermeasures applied to the collision sample. 

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